Parks in Nepal.
in the Central Himalaya, Langtang National Park is the nearest
park to Kathmandu. The area extends from 32 km north of Kathmandu
to the Nepal-China (Tibet) border. Langtang was designated
as the first Himalayan National Park in 1970-71, and was gazetted
in March 1976. While the main reason for the park is to preserve
the natural environment, an equally important goal is to allow
local people to follow traditional land use practices that
are compatible with resource protection.
(Everest) National Park
National Park covers an area of 1148 square kilometers in
the Khumbu region of Nepal. The Park includes the highest
peak in the world. Mt. Sagarmatha (Everest 8848 m.) and several
other well known peaks such as Lhotse, Cho Oyu, Pumori, Ama
Dablam, Thamerku, Kwangde, Kangtaiga and Gyachyung Kang.
Mt. Sagarmatha and the surrounding area is of major significance
not only to Nepal but to the rest of the world, its status
as a national park since 1976 is intended to safeguard its
unique cultural, physical and scientific values through positive
management based on sound conservation principles.
Hunting Reserve lies in Rukum, Myagdi and Baglung Districts
in the Dhaulagiri Himal range in West Nepal. Putha, Churen
and Gurja Himal extend over the northern boundary of the reserve.
Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve was established in 1983 and was
gazetted in 1987. Management objectives of the reserve allow
sports hunting and preserve a representative high altitude
ecosystem in West Nepal.
March 1992, the 'forbidden' kingdom of Mustang was opened
to the outside world. Now, for the first time in recent history,
foreign travelers are able to visit La Manthang, the seat
of an ancient kingdom dating back to the 15th century. The
Kingdom of La is situated along the north central border of
Nepal north of the main range of the Himalaya's in the upper
reaches of Mustang District. Lo and the area directly to its
south, called Baragaon, which both fall within Upper Mustang,
can be claimed as one of the most outstanding areas of the
people of Upper Mustang are called Bhotias and those from
Lo are called Lobas. They speak various dialects of Tibetan.
Historically, their art and culture flourished due to contact
with traders, monks and religious masters passing between
Tibet and India, or between Ladakh and Bhutan.
climate and geography of Upper Mustang are nearly identical
to those of Western Tibet and as such, they are dramatically
different from the temperate and tropical areas of the south
side of the Himalayas. The dry, wind swept ecology of this
Trans-Himalayan region is extremely fragile. Fuel wood is
virtually non-existent, water is scare, the agricultural land
yields insufficient food grains and the marginal and grasslands
support only limited numbers of livestock and wildlife. With
the influx of tourists, the already pressured desert environment
risks further degradation. In addition, although the culture
has flourished in contact with other religious and cultural
centers of the Himalayas, its sudden exposure to other worlds
beyond its high plateau may create a negative impact on the
order to keep the destructive environmental and cultural impact
of tourism in Upper Mustang to an absolute minimum, the Ministry
of Tourism has decided to develop the area as a model eco-tourism
Ministry of Tourism, has proposed that part of the revenue
generated from trekking royalties to Upper Mustang, US$700
(per person) for 10 days and US$70 (per person) for each additional
day, be earmarked for use in UMCDP to sponsor environmental
and cultural preservation efforts and community development
works. An Upper Mustang Development Fund has been established
with the financial support of the Ministry of Tourism and
the American Himalayan Foundation, to raise the living standard
of the people living in Upper Mustang area. The main aim is
to carry out development activities in the remotest villages.
UMDP's areas of operations are centered around agriculture,
animal husbandry, health and education.
Chitwan National Park
Chitwan National Park stands today as a successful testimony
of nature conservation in South Asia. This is the first national
park of Nepal established in 1973 to preserve a unique ecosystem
significantly valuable to the whole world. The park covering
a pristine area of 932 sq. km is situated in the subtropical
inner Terai lowlands of southern central part of Nepal. The
park has gained much wider recognition in the world when UNESCO
included this area on the list of World Heritage Site in 1984.
the Chitwan valley was well known for big game and was exclusively
managed as a hunting reserve for the Rana Prime Ministers
and their guests until 1950. In 1963, the area south of Rapti
was demarcated as a rhinoceros sanctuary. In 1970, His late
Majesty King Mahendra had approved in principle the creation
of Royal Chitwan National Park.
park consists of churia hills, ox-bow lakes, flood plains
of Rapti, Reu and Narayani rivers. The Churia hill rises gradually
towards the east from 150 m to over 800 m. The lower but most
rugged Someshwor hills occupy most of the western portion
of the park. The flood plains of Chitwan are rich alluvial.
The park boundaries have been delineated by the Narayani and
Rapti rivers in the north and west, and the Reu river and
Someshwor hills in the south and south-west. It shares its
eastern border with Parsa Wildlife Reserve.
Tappu Wildlife Reserve
Tappu Wildlife Reserve lies on the flood plain of the Sapta-Koshi
in Saptri and Sunsari Districts of eastern Nepal. The area
is defined by the eastern and western embankments of the river.
Koshi Tappu Reserve, gazetted in 1976, was established mainly
to preserve habitat for the remaining population of wild buffalo
Phoksundo National Park
Phoksundo National Park is situated in the mountain region
of Western Nepal, covering parts of Dolpa and Mugu Districts.
Gazetted in 1984, it is the largest national park in the country
with an area of 3555 sq. km. The main objectives of the park
are to preserve the unique trans-Himalayan ecosystem with
its typical Tibetan type of flora and fauna and to protect
endangered species such as the snow leopard and musk deer.
of the park lies north of the Great Himalayan Range. Kanjiroba
Himal lies at the southern edge of the trans-Himalayan region
of the Tibetan plateau. The high Dolpa plateau in the northeast
of the park is drained by the Langu (Namlang) River. The southern
catchment of the park is drained by the Jugdula and Suligad
Rivers, which flow south and drain into the Bheri River. Nepal's
second largest lake, Phoksundo, lies at 3660 m in the upper
reaches of Suligad.
Wildlife Reserve was established in 1984 with an area of 499
sq. km. It occupies part of Chitwan, Makwanpur, Parsa and
Bara Districts in Central Nepal. The reserve headquarter is
situated at Adhabar on the Hetauda-Birgunj highway (22 km
south to Hetauda and 20 km north to Birgunj).
dominant landscape of the reserve are the Churia hills ranging
from 750 m to 950 m, which run east-west. The soil is primarily
composed of gravel and conglomerates making it very susceptible
to erosion. The hills present a very rugged face with numerous
gullies and dry stream beds. As the foothills are very porous,
water flows underground and surfaces at a distance of about
15 km from the hills base.
National Park is located in northwest Nepal about 371 km air
distance from Kathmandu. The park headquarters is about 32
km north to Jumla. Most of the park including Lake Rara lies
in Mugu District, with a small area in Jumla District of Karnali
Zone. This is the smallest park in Nepal (106 sq. km) with
the country's biggest lake (10.8 sq. km) at an elevation of
2990 m. The lake is oval shaped with an eastwest axis and
has a maximum length of 5 km and a width of 3 km. The maximum
depth of the lake is 167 m. The park was gazetted in 1967
to conserve the unique beauty of Lake Rara and to protect
a representative sample of flora and fauna of the Humla-Jumla
elevation of the park ranges from 1800 m to 4048 m, Chuchemara
Lekh is the highest point. The lake is in a deep basin, the
northern and eastern rims which form part of the park boundary.
The lake drains to Mugu Karnali River via Nija Khola. The
lakeside pasture in the south gives way to the steep slopes
of Gurchi Lekh, its crest culminating at Chuchemara in a horse-shoe
shaped opening to the south drained by the Jiun River. On
the west, river valleys cut through a ridge which form the
natural boundary to the park.
Bardia National Park
an area of 968 sq. km, Royal Bardia National Park is situated
in the mid-Far Western Terai, east of the Karnali River. Originally
set aside in 1968 as a Royal Hunting Reserve, the area was
gazetted in 1967 as Royal Karnali Wildlife Reserve with an
area of 368 sq. km. It was renamed as Royal Bardia Wildlife
Reserve in 1982 and extended to include the Babai River valley
in 1984. National Park status was gazetted in 1988. The main
objectives of the park are to conserve a representative ecosystem
of the mid-Western Terai, particularly the tiger ad its prey
(Baba) National Park
National Park is located in the mid-mountain region of Far-Western
Nepal at an air distance of 446 km from Kathmandu. The core
area is situated at the cross point of Bajhang, Bajura, Doti
and Achham Districts of Seti Zone. The Park HQ. at Khaptad
is about 50 km and 32 km walking distance respectively from
Silgadhi town (Doti) and Chainpur town (Bajhang).
The park covers a unique ecosystem of the mid-mountain region
of Western Nepal and is situated at around 3000 m elevation.
The upland is a rolling plateau with grasslands intermixed
with oak and coniferous forests.
summer is cool and wet, whereas, the winter is cold and dry.
The monsoon begins in June and ends in September with rainfall
averaging less than 1000 mm. Occasional snowfall in winter
with chilling wind is another characteristic.
Suklaphant Wildlife Reserve
Royal Suklaphanta Wildlife Reserve is situated in the southern
part of Far-West Nepal in Kanchanpur District. The reserve
lies between 80o 25' east longitude and 28o 35' north latitude.
The reserve had been a famous hunting area for many years
and was declared a Royal Hunting Reserve in 1969. The reserve
was gazetted in 1973 as Royal Suklaphanta Wildlife Reserve.
It began as an area of 155 sq. km, today the reserve covers
an area of 305 sq. m after completion of an extension.
riverine flood plain of the reserve comprises of hill wash
and alluvial deposits. Sal (Shorea robusta) is the dominant
tree species. Extensive grasslands (locally called phanta)
provide an ideal habitat for swamp deer (Cervus duvauceli).
The species is endangered and there is a population of about
2000 in the reserve.
- Barun National Park
and Conservation Area
in the heart of the eastern Himalayan, seven valleys radiate
from Mt. Makalu, the world's fifth highest peak. These valleys,
particularly the Barun valley, treasure some of the last remaining
pristine forest and alpine meadows of Nepal. From the bottom
of the Arun valley, at just 435 m above sea level, the Himalayas
rise to the snow-capped tip of Makalu 8463 m within a 40 km
distance. Within this wide range of altitudes and climates,
the Makalu-Barun area contains some of the richest and most
diverse pockets of plants and animals in Nepal, elsewhere
lost to spreading human habitation.
in the lower reaches of these valleys are communities of Rai,
Sherpa, and Shingsawa (Bhotia) farmers. Though economically
poor and isolated, they retain a rich cultural heritage. They
hold the key to the preservation of the unique biological
and cultural treasures of the Makalu-Barun area.
Makalu-Barun National Park and Conservation Area was established
in 1992 as Nepal's eighth national park and the first to include
and adjacent inhabited conservation area as a buffer. A new
park management approach encourages local people to become
actively involved in protecting the forests and natural resources
upon which their lives depend, and in conserving their own
rich cultural heritage. Traditional resource management systems,
such as community controlled grazingd forest guardianship,
are being strengthened and low level technologies introduced
where appropriate. Working in collaboration with an American
NGO, Woodlands Mountain Institute, His Majesty's Government,
Nepal is striving to improve local living standards through
infrastructure, educational and income-generating activities.
2330 sq. km Makalu-Barun is a vital component of the greater
Mount Everest ecosystem which includes Nepal's 1,148 sq. km
Sagarmatha (Mount Everest) National Park to the west and the
35000 sq. km Comolangma Nature Preserve in the Tibet Autonomous
Region of China to the north.
Annapurna Conservation Area
area has been a smash hit in the world of conservation. Perhaps
this is the area that pioneered a successful conservation
without armed personnel. With the help of the local people,
this highland could be well protected. With a trekking circuit
from mid hills to the foothills of the Himalayas - Annapurna
region covers an area of 7629 sq. km. Beginning from 790 m,
the highest altitude reaches 8091 m of the Mountain Annapurna
1. This is the most visited trekking area in the mountain
region. More than 60000 visitors every year.
Conservation Area Project (ACAP) has been running it's programs
in the area with an aim to conserve nature and it's local
is yet another conservation area in the mountain region. Bordering
the Annapurna Conservation Area to the west and Tibetan Plateau
on the north and the east, the Manasalu region lies in Gorkha
District to the west of Kathmandu.
a trekking area, the regions altitude rises from a mere 600
m to 8163 m, the summit of Mt. Manasalu - the eighth highest
peak in the world.To
make conservation a success story the government has joined
hands with the King Mahendra Trust for Nature Conservation
(KMTNC) and the Asian Development Bank. The Manasalu Eco-Tourism
Development Project has been on in the region since 1997.
projects main objective is to deliver tangible benefits from
tourism to the local community while minimizing adverse environmental
impacts through the development of eco-tourism. The project
has proposed seven Village Development Committees, totaling
an area of 1663 sq. km in the Manasalu region, to be turned
into a conservation area within five years.
below the looming Mountain Kanchanjunga (8586 m), lies the
Kanchanjunga Conservation Area. Spread in an area of 2035
sq. km, the area is made up of alpine grass lands, rocky outcrops,
dense temperate and sub-tropical forests, and low river valleys
with the Kanchanjunga as its crown.
in north eastern Nepal in Taplejung District, the conservation
area is bordered by the Tibet Autonomous Region-China in the
north, Sikkim-India in the east and Sankhuwasabha District
in the west.
1998, the Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation
and WWF Program together launched the Kanchanjunga Conservation
Area Project to implement biodiversity conservation and sustainable